# MA132-10 Foundations

Department
Warwick Mathematics Institute
Level
David Wood
Credit value
10
Module duration
10 weeks
Assessment
Multiple
Study location
University of Warwick main campus, Coventry

##### Introductory description

University mathematics introduces progressively more and more abstract ideas and structures, and demands more and more in the way of proof, until by the end of a mathematics degree most of the student's time is occupied with understanding proofs and creating his or her own. This is not because university mathematicians are more pedantic than schoolteachers, but because proof is how one knows things in mathematics, and it is in its proofs that the strength and richness of mathematics is to be found.

##### Module aims

But learning to deal with abstraction and with proofs takes time. This module aims to bridge the gap between school and university mathematics, by beginning with some rather concrete techniques where the emphasis is on calculation, and gradually moving towards abstraction and proof.

##### Outline syllabus

This is an indicative module outline only to give an indication of the sort of topics that may be covered. Actual sessions held may differ.

Number systems
Number systems: Natural numbers, integers. Rationals and real numbers. Existence of irrational numbers. Complex Numbers.
Polar and exponential form of complex numbers. De Moivre's Theorem, n'th roots and roots of unity.
Euclidean algorithm; greatest common divisor and least common multiple.
Prime numbers, existence and uniqueness of prime factorisation. Infiniteness of the set of primes.
Modular arithmetic. Congruence, addition and multiplication modulo
n.
Language and Proof
Proof by induction.
Well-ordering Principle.
Basic set theory: ∩,∪, Venn diagrams and de Morgan's Laws. Cartesian product of sets, power set.
Logical connectives∧, ∨, ⇒ and their relation with ∩, ∪and ⊆. Quantifiers ∀ and ∃.
Sets, functions and relations
Injective, surjective and bijective functions.
Inverse functions.
Relations: equivalence relations, order relations.
Polynomials
Multiplication and long division of polynomials.
Euclidean algorithm for polynomials.
Remainder theorem; a degree n polynomial has at most n roots.
Algebraic and transcendental numbers. Fundamental theorem of
Algebra (statement only).
Counting
Cardinalities, including infinite cardinalities.
Cardinality of the power set of X is greater than cardinality of X.
Countability of the rational numbers, uncountability of the reals.
Transcendental numbers exist!

##### Learning outcomes

By the end of the module, students should be able to:

• Students will work with number systems and develop fluency with their properties;
• they will learn the language of sets and quantifiers, of functions and relations, and will become familiar with various methods and styles of proof.

None of these is the course text, but each would be useful, especially the first:
A.F.Beardon, Algebra and Geometry, CUP, 2005.
I.N. Stewart and D.O. Tall, Foundations of Mathematics, OUP, 1977.
J. A. Green, Sets and Groups; First Course in Algebra, Chapman and Hall, 1995.

##### Subject specific skills

After taking this module, students will be familiar with the concept of a rigorous mathematical proof and most of commonly used notations.

##### Transferable skills

Students will work with number systems and develop fluency with their properties; they will learn the language of sets and quantifiers, of functions and relations, and will become familiar with various methods and styles of proof.

## Study time

Type Required
Lectures 28 sessions of 1 hour (28%)
Tutorials 8 sessions of 30 minutes (4%)
Private study 68 hours (68%)
Total 100 hours
##### Private study description

Reviewing lectured material and revising for 10 weekly assignments with 5 fortnightly tests based on them.

## Costs

No further costs have been identified for this module.

You do not need to pass all assessment components to pass the module.

##### Assessment group D
Weighting Study time
4 Tests 15%

Multiple choice tests

In-person Examination 85%

exam

##### Assessment group R
Weighting Study time
In-person Examination - Resit 100%

exam

##### Feedback on assessment

Tests will be marked and feedback given after exam.

## Courses

This module is Core for:

• Year 1 of UMAA-G105 Undergraduate Master of Mathematics (with Intercalated Year)