PX2647.5 Physics of Fluids
Introductory description
The field of fluids is one of the richest and most easily appreciated in physics. Tidal waves, cloud formation and the weather generally are some of the more spectacular phenomena encountered in fluids. The module establishes the basic equations of motion for a fluid  the NavierStokes equations  and shows that in many cases they can yield simple and intuitively appealing explanations of fluid flows. The module concentrates on incompressible fluids.
Module aims
The module should explain why PDEs (with associated boundary conditions) are an appropriate model for fluids. You should learn how physical ideas and limiting cases can help analyse these PDEs which, in general, cannot be solved. These include the role of the Reynolds number, laminar viscous flow, the boundary layer concept and irrotational flow. The module also prepares you for future applied mathematics modules.
Outline syllabus
This is an indicative module outline only to give an indication of the sort of topics that may be covered. Actual sessions held may differ.
Introduction: Fluids as materials which do not support shear. Idea of a Newtonian fluid. Plausibility of τ = μ ∂u/∂y from assumption of a relaxation time for stress.
Equations of Motion:
Hydrostatics, forces due to pressure and gravity. Hydrodynamics: acceleration, continuity and incompressibility. Euler equation.
Streamlines: Integrating Euler for steady flow along a streamline to give Bernoulli. Energy considerations. Applications of Bernoulli, flux through a hole, Pitotstatic tube, aerofoil, waves on shallow water.
Hydrodynamics of Viscous Flow: Forces due to viscosity, NavierStokes equation. Derivation of Poiseuille's formula for laminar flow between plates.
Turbulence: Laminar flow only one possibility. Need for dimensionless number, Re, Pressure gradient as a function of Re. 2 Regimes: Physical interpretation of Re as Inertial forces/Viscous forces. Poiseuille works when Re small.
Irrotational Flow: Definition of vorticity and circulation. Importance of irrotational flow, Kelvin's circulation theorem. Examples of irrotational flow such as uniform flow, flow past a cylinder. Derivation of lift on thin aerofoil, as example for Magnus Effect.
Circulation around a cylinder. The vortex. Circulation constant round vortex line, need to close or end on surfaces. Advection of unlike vortices. The vortex ring. Circling of like vortices. Vortices at edges of wings.
Real Flows: Idea of boundary layer; Boundary layer separation and drag crisis.
Learning outcomes
By the end of the module, students should be able to:
 Use dimensional analysis to analyse fluid flows. In particular, they should appreciate the relevance of the Reynolds number
 Recognise and write down the equations of motion for incompressible fluids (the Navier Stokes equations) and understand the origin and physical meaning of the various terms including the boundary conditions
 Derive Poiseuille's formula and understand the conditions for it to be a valid description of fluid flow
 Simplify the equations of motion in the case of incompressible irrotational flow and solve them for simple cases including vortices
 Explain the boundary layer concept
Indicative reading list
LD Landau and EM Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, Pergamon; DJ Tritton, Physical Fluid Dynamics, OUP; TE Faber Fluid Dynamics for Physicists, CUP
View reading list on Talis Aspire
Interdisciplinary
The study of fluids has always crossed the boundaries between mathematics, physics and engineering. This module, taken by large numbers of physics, maths and maths/physics students, introduces the discipline from a physicist's perspective. It leads on to modules taught in later years by Maths.
Subject specific skills
Knowledge of mathematics and physics. Skills in modelling, reasoning, thinking.
Transferable skills
Analytical, communication, problemsolving, selfstudy
Study time
Type  Required 

Lectures  20 sessions of 1 hour (27%) 
Private study  55 hours (73%) 
Total  75 hours 
Private study description
Working through lecture notes, solving problems, wider reading, discussing with others taking the module, revising for the exam, practising on past exam papers
Costs
No further costs have been identified for this module.
You must pass all assessment components to pass the module.
Assessment group B1
Weighting  Study time  

2 hour online examination (Summer)  100%  
Answer two questions

Feedback on assessment
Personal tutor, group feedback
Courses
This module is Core for:
 Year 2 of UPXAFG33 Undergraduate Mathematics and Physics (BSc MMathPhys)
 Year 2 of UPXAGF13 Undergraduate Mathematics and Physics (BSc)
 Year 2 of UPXAFG31 Undergraduate Mathematics and Physics (MMathPhys)
This module is Option list A for:
 Year 2 of UPXAF304 Undergraduate Physics (BSc MPhys)
 Year 2 of UPXAF300 Undergraduate Physics (BSc)
 Year 2 of UPXAF303 Undergraduate Physics (MPhys)
 Year 2 of UPXAF3N1 Undergraduate Physics and Business Studies
 Year 2 of UPXAF3F5 Undergraduate Physics with Astrophysics (BSc)
 Year 2 of UPXAF3FA Undergraduate Physics with Astrophysics (MPhys)
This module is Option list B for:
 Year 2 of UMAAG105 Undergraduate Master of Mathematics (with Intercalated Year)
 Year 2 of UMAAG100 Undergraduate Mathematics (BSc)
 Year 2 of UMAAG103 Undergraduate Mathematics (MMath)
 Year 2 of UMAAG106 Undergraduate Mathematics (MMath) with Study in Europe
 Year 2 of UMAAG1NC Undergraduate Mathematics and Business Studies
 Year 2 of UMAAG1N2 Undergraduate Mathematics and Business Studies (with Intercalated Year)
 Year 2 of UMAAGL11 Undergraduate Mathematics and Economics
 Year 2 of UECAGL12 Undergraduate Mathematics and Economics (with Intercalated Year)
 Year 2 of UMAAG101 Undergraduate Mathematics with Intercalated Year