PX3897.5 Cosmology
Introductory description
Questions about the origin of the Universe, where it is going and how it may get there are the domain of cosmology. One of the questions addressed in the module is whether the Universe will continue to expand or ultimately contract. Relevant experimental data include those on the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, the distribution of galaxies and the distribution of mass in the Universe.
Starting from fundamental observations such as that the night sky is dark and, by appealing to principles from Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, the module develops a description of the Universe. This leads to the Friedmann equation, Hubble's law, the cosmological redshift and eventually to the Big Bang Model, with singular behaviour at the origin of the Universe. The module also discusses the evolution of the primeval fireball, the synthesis of Helium and the origin of structure.
Module aims
To present the credentials of the Universe as we know it (via experiment) and introduce the simplest models that can describe it. The module will stress the role of experimental data and emphasize cosmology as a physical science, which makes testable predictions that describe the observed Universe.
Outline syllabus
This is an indicative module outline only to give an indication of the sort of topics that may be covered. Actual sessions held may differ.
 The history and foundations of modern cosmology: Olber’s Paradox, Hubble’s Law and the Cosmological Principle.
 Describing the evolution of the Universe: basics of space time and relativity, curvature, Friedmann equation, fluid and acceleration equations.
 Model universes: describing the evolution when dominated by single component and multiplecomponents  the standard cosmological (benchmark) model.
 Key properties of our Universe: tests of the standard cosmological model, evidence for dark matter; models for dark matter, origin of structure.
 The early Universe: the Big Bang, connection to elementary particle physics and grandunified field theories (GUTS), inflation, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, formation of the cosmic background radiation.
Learning outcomes
By the end of the module, students should be able to:
 Discuss the current status of cosmology
 Recognise the importance of observations in constraining possible cosmological theories
 Explain the evolution of model universes, and how this evolution depends on their energy density components
 Discuss areas of cosmology where more work is needed to reconcile theory and observations
Indicative reading list
The following are useful, but not compulsory.
B. Ryden: Introduction to Cosmology, Pearson 2013
Michael Berry: Principles of cosmology and gravitation, IoP 1989
A. Liddle: An Introduction to Modern Cosmology, Wiley, 2003
View reading list on Talis Aspire
Subject specific skills
Knowledge of mathematics and physics. Skills in modelling, reasoning, thinking.
Transferable skills
Analytical, communication, problemsolving, selfstudy
Study time
Type  Required 

Lectures  15 sessions of 1 hour (20%) 
Private study  60 hours (80%) 
Total  75 hours 
Private study description
Working through lecture notes, solving problems, wider reading, discussing with others taking the module, revising for exam, practising on past exam papers
Costs
No further costs have been identified for this module.
You must pass all assessment components to pass the module.
Assessment group B1
Weighting  Study time  

2 hour online examination (Summer)  100%  
Answer 2 questions from 3

Feedback on assessment
Personal tutor, group feedback
Courses
This module is Option list A for:
 Year 3 of UPXAF300 Undergraduate Physics (BSc)
 Year 4 of UPXAF301 Undergraduate Physics (with Intercalated Year)
This module is Option list B for:

UMAAG105 Undergraduate Master of Mathematics (with Intercalated Year)
 Year 3 of G105 Mathematics (MMath) with Intercalated Year
 Year 5 of G105 Mathematics (MMath) with Intercalated Year
 Year 3 of UMAAG100 Undergraduate Mathematics (BSc)

UMAAG103 Undergraduate Mathematics (MMath)
 Year 3 of G103 Mathematics (MMath)
 Year 4 of G103 Mathematics (MMath)

UMAAG106 Undergraduate Mathematics (MMath) with Study in Europe
 Year 3 of G106 Mathematics (MMath) with Study in Europe
 Year 4 of G106 Mathematics (MMath) with Study in Europe
 Year 3 of UPXAFG33 Undergraduate Mathematics and Physics (BSc MMathPhys)
 Year 3 of UPXAGF13 Undergraduate Mathematics and Physics (BSc)
 Year 3 of UPXAFG31 Undergraduate Mathematics and Physics (MMathPhys)
 Year 4 of UPXAGF14 Undergraduate Mathematics and Physics (with Intercalated Year)
 Year 4 of UMAAG101 Undergraduate Mathematics with Intercalated Year
 Year 3 of UPXAF304 Undergraduate Physics (BSc MPhys)
 Year 3 of UPXAF303 Undergraduate Physics (MPhys)