BS365-12 Exploiting Innovation in Biology
There are many areas of Biology where new developments brought about by advancing knowledge in genomics and proteomics have been explored for commercialisation. Enzymes have long been exploited in a diverse range of industries such as detergent manufacture, food processing and diagnostics. Bacteria are being exploited in environmental clean up (bioremediation) and in clean technology for more environmentally friendly metal and oil extraction. The realisation that microbiomes, the microorganisms that colonise plants, animals and humans in a life-long association, are critically important for immune response, protection against disease and for metabolic well-being has now resulted in exploitation worldwide. Bacteria are also being used for increasing crop yield and in sustainable agriculture for the control of insect pests. This module aims to demonstrate to students how developments are made in the laboratory and then exploited in the environment and in industry. In addition to academic staff within the School a number of experts will contribute to the course to lecture on intellectual property, patent law, new developments in clinical medicine and those resulting from Antarctic exploration. The module will introduce students to 'cutting edge science' in the final year and make them aware of how life science research is making a significant contribution to commercial activities globally.
Students should gain a comprehensive understanding of the principles and practice, and underlying biology and microbiology of key selected areas of exploitation of biological resources. Further lectures will consider the use of bacteria in agriculture for biological control of pests and as inoculants to allow the growth of novel crops. The exploitation of microbiomes will be considered as an emerging technology. This will be followed by a discussion of bioethical aspects of the course such as the use of GM organisms. Students should be able to discuss the role of biology in number of modern industrial processes, to understand the use of enzymes in medical applications for rational drug design, for drug modification, and for drug delivery. In addition to discuss the use of biological systems in the minerals and oil industry as part of the development of clean technology, biosensor development, bioremediation and issues related to climate change. Students will also have an appreciation of the mechanism by which a patent is obtained and some of the processes by which products for use in the medical profession are tested and approved. Furthermore students will gain an appreciation of public health protection in the UK and learn of the latest techniques being used to diagnose infectious diseases.
This is an indicative module outline only to give an indication of the sort of topics that may be covered. Actual sessions held may differ.
Lectures 1- 6
Exploitation of microbial activity and microbiomes for biological control and the promotion of plant, animal and human health and well-being
Introduction to microbial inoculants; applications to pest control, enhancement of plant growth and manipulation of the plant microbiome and rhizosphere. Advantages and disadvantages of biological control.
Microbes as pesticides. The control of insect and other invertebrate pests. Case studies: Bacillus thuringiensis, baculoviruses and pseudomonads.
Microbial inoculants and manipulation of root microbiomes for promotion of plant growth. The uses of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in symbiotic associations and fungal mycorrhizae colonising plant roots.
The development of GMO microbial inoculants; current and future prospects for use in the environment and problems of biosafety. Review of regulations and comparison of US and EU legislation.
Exploitation and biocontrol activities in GMO crops: analysis of current genes used in
crop protection and growth enhancement and the impact of their use on the environment and the commercial use of microbial inoculants.
What are microbiomes and how has knowledge of the human microbiome been used to explore commercial applications.
Exploitation of innovations in Biology by exploration
Introduction to and critical evaluation of how advances in fundamental understanding of biological adaptation to extreme environments coupled with recent technological developments are being exploited for the benefit of the mankind.
i. Enzymes; extremozymes, psychrophiles, thermophiles, enzyme kinetics, co-enzymes and co-factors.
iii Biosensors and public health; remote sensing, defence, diagnosis, epidemiology, control.
iv Climate change; monitoring technology, living with climate change, carbon sequestration.
v Energy; biofuels, feed products, aquaculture, food.
New Frontiers Synthetic Biology
Recycling waste, new materials, biodegradation of xenobiotics
Research and development in the pharmaceutical and health protection sectors
The two lectures will cover the research and development that led to the discovery of novel products in the pharmaceutical sector followed by a review of diagnostic methods used for infectious diseases in the health protection sector. The selected examples will describe the steps taken to bring these biopharmaceuticals to the market-place. There will be a brief overview of the Public Health England (PHE) and the way it uses modern technology to provide an effective delivery of diagnostic tests. Time permitting; there will be opportunities for discussion on careers and activities in both the pharmaceutical and health protection sectors.
Patenting biological inventions
What is “intellectual property”? What is a patent and what is patentable? Why are patents important? How are patents put together? Examples covering the requirements for novelty, an inventive step: the scope of patents, morality issues, patents relating to genes, plants and animals will be used as illustrations. How is Technology Transfer put into practice?
Exploitation and innovation in research
How is innovation protected and exploited in Universities? A overview of issues involved in encouraging the close interaction between research and mechanisms of exploitation- a discussion of issues affecting academic research including ethical and commercial considerations. What are the problems and where are the advantages? Reference to specific case studies and some success stories at Warwick University.
A discussion on the ethical nature of introducing new technologies. Should we simply introduce GM crops into the environment with no consideration for their impact on existing plant and animal life? Should we be looking to convert food crops into biofuels when there is so much starvation in the world?
Students need to come to these lectures prepared to discuss the issues surrounding the material you have had in the other parts of this module.
Case studies tutorial
By the end of the module, students should be able to:
- LO1 Discuss the role of biology in number of modern industrial processes.
- LO2 Understand the use of enzymes in medical applications for rational drug design, for drug modification, and for drug delivery.
- LO3 Discuss the use of microorganisms in the minerals and oil industry as part of the development of clean technology
- LO4 Discuss the use of bacteria in minerals extraction and in oil and coal desulphurisation.
- LO5 Consider the use of bacteria in agriculture for biological control of pests and as inoculants to allow the growth of novel crops.
Indicative reading list
Selected literature will be provided during the module
Subject specific skills
a. Demonstrate clear understanding of the scientific topic
b. Contain evidence of extended reading and lateral integration of material not covered in the lectures
c. Demonstrate independent thought and deep understanding
d. Specifically answer the set question using information from multiple lectures and sources
e. Be structured and formatted in a way that demonstrates understanding and logical flow
f. Use multiple sources to construct complex scientific arguments and integrating these to build and develop the student's own scientific conclusions.
- Critical appraisal of source material
- Self directed learning
- Adult learning
|Lectures||19 sessions of 1 hour (16%)|
|Seminars||1 session of 1 hour (1%)|
|Private study||100 hours (83%)|
Private study description
100 hrs of self-study and directed reading
No further costs have been identified for this module.
You must pass all assessment components to pass the module.
Students can register for this module without taking any assessment.
Assessment group B1
Feedback on assessment
Pastoral meetings with personal tutor
This module is Core for:
- Year 3 of UBSA-3 Undergraduate Biological Sciences
- Year 4 of UBSA-4 Undergraduate Biological Sciences (with Intercalated Year)
This module is Optional for:
- Year 4 of ULFA-C113 Undergraduate Biological Sciences (with Placement Year)
- Year 3 of ULFA-C1A5 Undergraduate Biological Sciences with Industrial Placement (MBio)
- Year 5 of UCHA-F1C1 Undergraduate Chemical Biology MChem with Intercalated Year
This module is Option list A for:
UBSA-3 Undergraduate Biological Sciences
- Year 3 of C100 Biological Sciences
- Year 3 of C105 Biological Sciences with Molecular Genetics
- Year 3 of C107 Biological Sciences with Virology
- Year 3 of ULFA-C1A1 Undergraduate Biological Sciences (MBio)
UBSA-4 Undergraduate Biological Sciences (with Intercalated Year)
- Year 4 of C111 Biological Sciences with Cell Biology (with Intercalated Year)
- Year 4 of C101 Biological Sciences with Intercalated Year
- Year 4 of C108 Biological Sciences with Molecular Genetics ( with Intercalated Year)
- Year 4 of C110 Biological Sciences with Virology (with Intercalated Year)
- Year 4 of C521 Microbiology and Virology with Intercalated Year
- Year 4 of C523 Virology (with intercalated year)
This module is Option list B for:
UBSA-3 Undergraduate Biological Sciences
- Year 3 of C102 Biological Sciences with Cell Biology
- Year 3 of C103 Biological Sciences with Environmental Resources